Panama: The Hub of the Americas

Panama has been the crossroads of the world historically. In recent years it has become the hub of the Americas. Our connectivity to latin American cities has positioned the country as the home base for many multinational corporations to establish their regional ofices.  In order to serve our clients Siuma Relocation through its strategic  partners around Latin American supports all our clients in their needs from one single point of contact.


Argentina

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The climate of Argentina is a complex subject: the vast size of the country and considerable variation in altitude make for a wide range of climate types. Argentina has four seasons: winter (June–August), spring (September–November), summer (December–February) and autumn (March–May), all featuring different weather conditions. Summers are the warmest and wettest season in most of the country except in most of Patagonia where it is the driest season. Winters are normally mild in the north, cool in the center and cold in the southern parts with the latter experiencing frequent frost and snow. Because southern parts of the country are moderated by the surrounding oceans, the cold is less intense and prolonged than areas at comparable latitudes in the northern hemisphere. Spring and autumn are transition seasons that generally feature mild weather.

Argentine cuisine is described as a cultural blending of Indigenous, Mediterranean influences (such as those created by Italian and Spanish populations) within the wide scope of agricultural products that are abundant in the country. Argentine annual consumption of beef has averaged 100 kg (220 lbs) per capita,[1] approaching 180 kg (396 lbs) per capita during the 19th century; consumption averaged 67.7 kg (149 lbs) in 2007.[2] Beyond asado (the Argentine barbecue), no other dish more genuinely matches the national identity. Nevertheless, the country’s vast area, and its cultural diversity, have led to a local cuisine of various dishes.[3][4] The great immigratory waves consequently imprinted a large influence in the Argentine cuisine, after all Argentina was the second country in the world with the most immigrants with 6.6 million, only second to the United States with 27 million, and ahead of other immigratory receptor countries such as Canada, Brazil, Australia, etc

Literature Personalities:
Jorge Luis Borges (1899–1986)
Che Guevara (1928–1967)
Julio Cortázar (1914–1984)


Bolivia

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The climate of Bolivia varies drastically from one ecoregion to the other, from the tropics in the eastern llanos to polar climates in the western Andes. The summers are warm, humid in the east and dry in the west, with rains that often modify temperatures, humidity, winds, atmospheric pressure and evaporation, giving place to very different climates. When the climatological phenomenon known as El Niño[3][4] takes place, it provokes great alterations in the weather. Winters are very cold in the west, and it snows around the mountain ranges, while in the western regions, windy days are more usual. The autumn is dry in the non-tropical regions

Bolivian cuisine stems from the combination of Spanish cuisine with indigenous ingredients and Aymara traditions, among others, with later influences from Argentinians, Germans, Italians French, and Arabs due to the arrival of immigrants from those countries. The traditional staples of Bolivian cuisine are corn, potatoes, and beans. These ingredients have been combined with a number of staples brought by the Spanish, such as rice, wheat, and meat, including beef, pork, and chicken.

Literature Personalities:
Adela Zamudio (1854-1928)
Franz Tamayo 1878-1956
Alcides Arguedas (1879-1946)


Brazil

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The climate of Brazil varies considerably mostly from tropical north (the equator traverses the mouth of the Amazon) to temperate zonessouth of the Tropic of Capricorn (23°26′ S latitude). Temperatures below the equator are high, averaging above 25 °C (77 °F), but not reaching the summer extremes of up to 40 °C (104 °F) in the temperate zones. There is little seasonal variation near the equator, although at times it can get cool enough to need to wear a jacket, especially in the rain. Average temperatures below the Capricorn Tguspic are mild, ranging from 13 °C (55 °F) to 22 °C (72 °F)

Brazilian cuisine has European, African and Amerindian influences. It varies greatly by region, reflecting the country’s mix of native and immigrant populations, and its continental size as well. This has created a national cuisine marked by the preservation of regional differences.

Ingredients first used by native peoples in Brazil include cassava, guaraná, açaí, cumaru, cashew and tucupi. From there, the many waves of immigrants brought some of their typical dishes, replacing missing ingredients with local equivalents. For instance, the European immigrants (primarily from Portugal, Italy, Spain, Germany, Poland and Switzerland) were accustomed to a wheat-based diet, and introduced wine, leaf vegetables, and dairy products into Brazilian cuisine. When potatoes were not available they discovered how to use the native sweet manioc as a replacement. Enslaved Africans also had a role in developing Brazilian cuisine, especially in the coastal states. The foreign influence extended to later migratory waves – Japanese immigrants brought most of the food items that Brazilians would associate with Asian cuisine today, and introduced large-scale aviaries, well into the 20th century.

Literature Personalities:
Machado de Assis (1839-1908)
Paulo Coelho (1947-)
Jorge Amado (1912-2001)


Chile

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The climate of Chile comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large geographic scale, extending across 38 degrees in latitude, making generalizations difficult. According to the Köppen system, Chile within its borders hosts at least seven major climatic subtypes, ranging lowdesert in the north, to alpine tundra and glaciers in the east and southeast, humid subtropical in Easter Island, Oceanic in the south and Mediterranean climate in central Chile. There are four seasons in most of the country: summer (December to February), autumn (March to May), winter (June to August), and spring (September to November).

Chilean cuisine stems mainly from the combination of traditional Spanish cuisine, Chilean Indigenous Mapuche culture and local ingredients, with later important influences from other European cuisines, particularly from Germany, Italy and France. The food tradition and recipes in Chile are notable for the variety of flavours and ingredients, with the country’s diverse geography and climate hosting a wide range of agricultural produce, fruits and vegetables. The long coastline and the peoples’ relationship with the Pacific Ocean add an immense array of seafood products to Chilean cuisine, with the country’s waters home to unique species of fish, molluscs, crustaceans and algae, thanks to the oxygen-rich water carried in by the Humboldt Current. Chile is also one of the world’s largest producers of wine and many Chilean recipes are enhanced and accompanied by local wines.

Literature Personalities:
Gabriela Mistral – winner of the Nobel prize for literature
Pablo Neruda – winner of the Nobel prize for literature
Isabel Allende – novelist (The House of Spirits)


Colombia

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Climate: Colombia lies almost on the equator but because the height differences there are four different climate zones. 83% of the country lies below 1000 meters with the average temperature is 24 °c. 9% of the land located between 1000 meters and 2000 meters  with an average temperature of 18 °c. 6% of the land area is between 2000 and 3000 meters with an average temperature of 12 °c. Snow is found above 4500 meters altitude. The seasons in Colombia are more characterized by rainfall than by temperature changes. In the low areas on the Caribbean coast (the north) there is a dry season from December to March, the rest of the year is rainy. In the south, the rainy season interrupted by a period of less rainy nature in June and July, and on the Pacific coast a dry season almost is non-existent.

Colombian cuisine includes the cooking traditions and practices of Colombia´s Caribbean shoreline, Pacific Coast, mountains, jungle and rachlands, Colombian Cuisine varies regionally  and is influenced by the indigenous Chibcha, Spanish, African, Arab and some Asian cuisine. Colombian coffee is renowed for its high quality.
Colombia’s varied cuisine is influenced by its diverse fauna and flora as well as the cultural traditions of the ethnic groups. Colombian dishes and ingredients vary widely by region. Some of the most common ingredients are: cereals such as rice and maize; tubers such as potatoes and cassava; assorted legumes; meats including beef, chicken, pork and goat: fish; and seafood. Colombia cuisine also features a variety of tropical fruits such as cape gooseberry, feijoa, arazá, dragon fruit, mangostino, granadilla, papaya, guava, blackberry, lulo, soursoup and passionfruit. Among the most representative appetizers and soups are patacones (fried green plantains), sancocho de gallina (chicken soup with root vegetables) and ajiaco (potato and corn soup). Representative snacks and breads are pandebono, arepas (corn cakes), aborrajados (fried sweet plantains with cheese), torta de choclo, empanadas and almojábanas. Representative main courses are bandeja paisa, lechona tolimense, mamona, tamales and fish dishes

Literature Personalities:  
Gabriel García Marquez (1927-2014)
Jorge Isaacs (1837-1895)
Laura Restrepo (1950 – )


Costa Rica

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Climate: The climate is tropical year round. However, the country has many microclimates depending on elevation, rainfall, topography, and by the geography of each particular region. Costa Rica itself has an average temperature of 70 F to 81 F. Due to its proximity to the equator, it has no real summer or winter. Costa Rica’s seasons are defined by how much rain falls during a particular period. The year can be split into two periods, the dry season and the rainy season. The “summer” or dry season goes from December to April, and “winter” or rainy season goes from May to November, which almost coincides with the Atlantic hurricane season, and during this time, it rains constantly in some regions.

Costa Rican cuisine is known for being fairly mild, with high reliance on fresh fruits and vegetables. Rice and black beans are a staple of most traditional Costa Rican meals, often served three times a day. Due to the tropical location of the country, there are many exotic fruits and vegetables readily available and included in the local cuisine. Potatoes are another Costa Rican staple, part of the starch-rich Tico diet. Pork and beef are the most commonly eaten meats, but chicken and fish dishes are also widely available, especially on the Caribbean coast.
Gallo Pinto, which has a literal meaning of “spotted chicken”, is the national dish of Costa Rica. It consists of rice and beans stir-fried together in a pan to create a speckled appearance. For lunch, the traditional meal is called a Casado.

The Caribbean coast has its own unique cuisine, distinctive of the rest of the nation. The dishes usually include coconut milk and more characteristic spices, like ginger and curry. Roadside stalls sell a vast array of fruits: apples, papayas, mangoes, bananas, pineapples, apricots, and melons. Coconuts are widely used in the Caribbean. Grated coconut is used in many deserts and cakes. Coconut milk is a staple used to bind other ingredients in recipes. Milk is used in cheeses, such as the soft white queso blanco, which frequently finds its way into deserts. The akee is a spongy yellow fruit native to Africa and brought to the Caribbean by the English.

Literature Personalities:  
Carmen Naranjo(1928-2012)
Carlos Luis Fallas (1909 – 1966)
Carmen Lyra (1888-1949)


Ecuador

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The climate of Ecuador varies by region, due to differences in altitude and, to a degree, in proximity to the equator. Ecuador map of Köppen climate classification. The coastal lowlands in the western part of Ecuador are typically warm with temperatures in the region of 25 °C (77 °F).[Coastal areas are affected by ocean currents and between January and April are hot and rainy. The weather in Quito is consistent with that of a subtropical highland climate. The city has barely any cool air since it is close to the equator. The average temperature during the day is 66 °F (19 °C), which generally falls to an average of 50 °F (10 °C) at night. The average temperature annually is 64 °F (17.8 °C).

Ecuadorian cuisine is diverse, varying with altitude, and associated agricultural conditions. Pork, chicken, beef, and cuy (guinea pig) are popular in the mountainous regions, and are served with a variety of carbohydrate-rich foods, especially rice, corn, and potatoes. A popular street food in mountainous regions is hornado, consisting of potatoes served with roasted pig. Some examples of Ecuadorian cuisine in general include patacones (unripe plantains fried in oil, mashed up, and then refried), llapingachos (a pan-seared potato ball), and seco de chivo (a type of stew made from goat). A wide variety of fresh fruit is available, particularly at lower altitudes, including granadilla, passionfruit, naranjilla, several types of banana, uvilla, taxo, and tree tomato.

Literature Personalities:  
Alfredo Pareja Díez Canseco (1908-1993)
Jorge Icaza Coronel (1906- 1978)
Jorge Amado (1912-2001)
Alicia Yánez Cossío (1928 – )


Guatemala

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Climate: Guatemala City’s relatively high altitude moderates average temperatures. The city has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw) bordering on a subtropical highland climate (Cwb). Guatemala City is generally warm, almost springlike, throughout the course of the year. It occasionally gets hot during the dry season, but not as hot and humid as in the cities located at sea level. The hottest month is April. The rainy season extends from May to October, coinciding with the tropical storm and hurricane season in the western Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea, while the dry season extends from November to April. The city can at times be windy, which also leads to lower ambient temperatures. The average annual temperature ranges from 22 to 28 °C (72 to 82 °F) during the day, and 12 to 17 °C (54 to 63 °F) at night.Average morning relative humidity: 82%, evening relative humidity: 58%. Average dew point is 16 °C (61 °F)

Guatemalan cuisine cuisine is mainly based on Spanish and Mayan cuisine and prominently feature corn, chilies and beans as key ingredients. There are also foods that are commonly eaten on certain days of the week. For example, it is a popular custom to eat paches (a kind of tamale made from potatoes) on Thursday. Certain dishes are also associated with special occasions, such as fiambre for All Saints Day on November 1 and tamales, which are common around Christmas.

Literature Personalities:
Miguel Ángel Austrias (1899-1974)
Rigoberta Menchú (1959 – )
Rafael Landívar (1731–1793)


Honduras

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The climate of Honduras varies from tropical in the lowlands to temperate in the mountains. The central and southern regions are relatively hotter and less humid than the northern coast.

Honduran cuisine is a fusion of indigenous (Lenca) cuisine, Spanish cuisine, Caribbean cuisine and African cuisine. There are also dishes from the Garifuna people. Coconut and coconut milk are featured in both sweet and savory dishes. Regional specialties include fried fish, tamales, carne asada and baleadas. Other popular dishes include: meat roasted with chismol and carne asada, chicken with rice and corn, and fried fish with pickled onions and jalapeños. In the coastal areas and in the Bay Islands, seafood and some meats are prepared in many ways, some of which include coconut milk.

Literature Personalities:
Froylan Turcios (1874 – 1943)
Juan Ramón Molina (1875–1908)
Lucila Gamero de Medina (1873 – 1964)


Jamaica

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Climate: Two types of climate are found in Jamaica. An upland tropical climate prevails on the windward side of the mountains, whereas a semiarid climate predominates on the leeward side. Warm trade winds from the east and northeast bring rainfall throughout the year. The rainfall is heaviest from May to October, with peaks in those two months. The average rainfall is 1,960 millimetres (77.2 in) per year.

Temperatures in Jamaica are fairly constant throughout the year, averaging 25 to 30 °C (77 to 86 °F) in the lowlands and 15 to 22 °C (59.0 to 71.6 °F) at higher elevations. Temperatures may dip to below 10 °C (50 °F) at the peaks of the Blue Mountains. Jamaica lies in the Atlantic hurricane belt; as a result, the island sometimes experiences significant storm damage.

Jamaican cuisine includes a mixture of cooking techniques, flavours, spices and influences from the indigenous people on the island of Jamaica, and the Spanish, British, Africans, Indian and Chinese who have inhabited the island. It is also influenced by the crops introduced into the island from tropical Southeast Asia. Jamaican cuisine includes various dishes from the different cultures brought to the island with the arrival of people from elsewhere. Other dishes are novel or a fusion of techniques and traditions. In addition to ingredients that are native to Jamaica, many foods have been introduced and are now grown locally. A wide variety of seafood, tropical fruits and meats are available.

Literature Personalities:
Marlon James (1970- )
Claude Mckay (1889- 1948 – )
Sylvia Wynter (b. 1928)


México

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Climate: Mexico is highly varied. The Tropic of Cancer effectively divides the country into temperate and tropical zones. Land north of the twenty-fourth parallel experiences cooler temperatures during the winter months. South of the twenty-fourth parallel, temperatures are fairly constant year round and vary solely as a function of elevation. The north of the country generally receives less precipitation than the south.

Mexico has pronounced wet and dry seasons. Most of the country experiences a rainy season from June to mid-October and significantly less rain during the remainder of the year. February and July generally are the driest and wettest months, respectively

Mexican cuisine is primarily a fusion of indigenous Mesoamerican cooking with European, especially Spanish, elements added after the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in the 16th century. The staples are native foods, such as corn, beans, avocados, tomatoes, and chili peppers, along with rice, which was brought by the Spanish. Europeans introduced a large number of other foods, the most important of which were meats from domesticated animals (beef, pork, chicken, goat, and sheep), dairy products (especially cheese), and various herbs and spices.

Literature Personalities:
Juan Rulfo(1917-1986)
Octavio Paz(1914 – 1998 )
Carlos Fuentes Macías (1928–2012)


Nicaragua

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Climate: Nicaragua enjoys a tropical climate in the lowlands and is cooler in highlands. It has two distinct seasons, wet and dry. The wet season lasts from mid-May to November, with May and October being the wettest. Temperatures in this season usually range from 80° F to 90° F (27° C to 32° C). Expect short daily showers and a lush, green environment during the wet season. The wet season coincides with the best surfing months, as this is when swells from the southern hemisphere make their way up to Nicaragua.

Nicaraguan cuisine includes a mixture of the indigenous Miskito people, Spanish cuisine and Creole cuisine. When the Spaniards first arrived in Nicaragua they found that the Creole people present had incorporated foods available in the area into their cuisine. Despite the blending and incorporation of pre-Columbian and Spanish influenced cuisine, traditional cuisine differs on the Pacific and the Caribbean coast. While the Pacific coast’s main staple revolves around local fruits and corn, the Caribbean coast’s cuisine makes use of seafood and coconut.
Commonly used ingredients include fruits and vegetables include: jocote, grosella, mimbro, mango, papaya, tamarind, pipian, banana, avocado, yuca, and quequisque. Herbs such as culantro, oregano and achiote are also part of the cuisine.

Literature Personalities:
Ruben Darío (1867-1916)
Pablo Antonio Cuadra (1912- 2002 )
Tomás Borge (1930–2012)


Paraguay

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Climate: Paraguay is highly varied. The Tropic of Cancer effectively divides the country into temperate and tropical zones. Land north of the twenty-fourth parallel experiences cooler temperatures during the winter months. South of the twenty-fourth parallel, temperatures are fairly constant year round and vary solely as a function of elevation. The north of the country generally receives less precipitation than the south.

Paraguay has pronounced wet and dry seasons. Most of the country experiences a rainy season from June to mid-October and significantly less rain during the remainder of the year. February and July generally are the driest and wettest months, respectively.

Paraguayan cuisine The cuisine of Paraguay is similar to the cuisines in Uruguay and the Falkland Islands. Meat, vegetables, manioc, maize, and fruits are common in Paraguayan cuisine. Barbecuing is both a cooking technique and often a social event, and are known as the Asado. Many dishes are based on corn, milk, cheese and meat, and fish caught in rivers are also eaten.

There are about 70 varieties of chipa (cake) in Paraguay. Most chipas are made from manioc flour, which is derived from cassava, and cornmeal

Literature Personalities:
Augusto Roa Bastos(1917-2005)
Gabriel Casaccia(1907 – 1980 )
Hérib Campos Cervera(1905–1953)


Peru

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The climate of Peru is very diverse, with a large variety of climates and microclimates, including 30 of the 32 world climates. Such a diversity is chiefly conditioned by the presence of the Andes mountains and the cold Humboldt Current The climate on the coast is subtropical with very little rainfall. The Andes mountains observe a cool-to-cold climate with rainy summers and very dry winter. The eastern lowlands present an Equatorial climate with hot weather and rain distributed all year long.

Peruvian cuisine reflects local practices and ingredients—including influences from the indigenous population including the Inca and cuisines brought in with immigrants from Europe (Spanish cuisine, Italian cuisine, German cuisine), Asia (Chinese cuisine andJapanese cuisine) and West Africa. Without the familiar ingredients from their home countries, immigrants modified their traditional cuisines by using ingredients available in Peru. The four traditional staples of Peruvian cuisine are corn, potatoes and other tubers,Amaranthaceaes (Quinoa, Kañiwa and kiwicha) and legumes (beans and lupins). Staples brought by the Spanish include rice, wheatand meats (beef, pork and chicken). Many traditional foods—such as Quinoa, kiwicha, chili peppers, and several roots and tubershave increased in popularity in recent decades, reflecting a revival of interest in native Peruvian foods and culinary techniques. ChefGaston Acurio has become well known for raising awareness of local ingredients. The US food critic Eric Asimov has described it as one of the world’s most important cuisines and as an exemplar of fusion cuisine, due to its long multicultural history.

Literature Personalities:  
Inca Garcilaso de la Vega (c. 1539–1616), chronicler
Cesar Vallejo (1892–1938), influential poet, writer, journalist
Mario Vargas Llosa (born 1936), novelist of the Latin American Boom


Puerto Rico

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Climate: falls into the tropical climatic zone. Temperatures are moderate year round, averaging near 80 °F (27 °C) in lower elevations and 70 °F (21 °C) in the mountains. Easterly trade winds pass across the island year round. Puerto Rico has a rainy season which stretches from April into November.[1] The mountains of the Cordillera Central are the main cause of the variations in the temperature and rainfall that occur over very short distances. The mountains can also cause wide variation in local wind speed and direction due to their sheltering and channeling effects adding to the climatic variation. About a quarter of the annual rainfall for Puerto Rico, on average, occurs during tropical cyclones, which are more frequent during La Niña events.

Puerto Rican cuisine has its root in the cooking traditions and practices of Europe (mostly Spain), Africa and the native Taínos. Starting from the latter part of the 19th century, the cuisine of Puerto Rico has been greatly influenced by the United States in the ingredients used in its preparation. Puerto Rican cuisine has transcended the boundaries of the island and also has a lot of Asian influence especially Japanese and Chinese, and can be found in several other countries.

Literature Personalities:
Alejandro Tapia y Rivera (1826 – 1882)
Alejandrina Benítez De Arce (1819 – 1879)
Eugenio María de Hostos (1839 – 1903)


Dominican Republic

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Climate: in the Dominican is tropical all year round. Due to its diverse topography,  it shows considerable variation over short distances and is the most varied of all the Antilles. The annual average temperature is 25 °C (77 °F). At higher elevations the temperature averages 18 °C (64.4 °F) while near sea level the average temperature is 28 °C (82.4 °F). Low temperatures of 0 °C (32 °F) are possible in the mountains while high temperatures of 40 °C (104 °F) are possible in protected valleys. January and February are the coolest months of the year while August is the hottest month. Snowfall can be seen in rare occasions on the summit of Pico Duarte

Dominican cuisine is predominantly made up of a combination of Spanish, indigenous Taíno, and African influences. Many Middle-Eastern dishes have been adopted into Dominican cuisine, such as the “Quipe” that comes from the Lebanese kibbeh. Dominican cuisine resembles that of other countries in Latin America, those of the nearby islands of Puerto Rico and Cuba, most of all, though the dish names differ sometimes.

Since the Dominican Republic was formerly a Spanish colony many Spanish traits are still present on the island. Many traditional Spanish dishes have found a new home in the Dominican Republic, some with a twist. African and Taíno dishes still hold strong, some of them unchanged

All or nearly all food groups are accommodated in typical Dominican cuisine, as it incorporates meat or seafood; grains, especially rice, corn (native to the island), and wheat; vegetables, such as beans and other legumes, potatoes, yuca, or plantains, and salad; dairy products, especially milk and cheese; and fruits, such as oranges, bananas, and mangos.

Literature Personalities:  
Julia Alvarez (1950- )
Junot Diaz (1968- )
Joaquin Balaguer (1906- 2002)


Salvador

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Climate: El Salvador has a Tropical climate with pronounced wet and dry seasons. Temperatures vary primarily with elevation and show little seasonal change. The Pacific lowlands are uniformly hot; the central plateau and mountain areas are more moderate. The  dry the dry season extends  from November to April,  and the rainy season extends from May to October. In general, the climate is warm, with an annual average maximum of 32° C (90° F ) and an average minimum of 18° C (64° F ). The average temperature at San Salvador is 22° C (72° F ) in January and 23° C (73° F) in July.

Salvadoran traditional cuisine consists of food from Native American cuisine, indigenous Lenca, Maya, Pipil and European Spanish peoples. Many of the dishes are made with maize (corn). The influence of Mayan culture is quite strong, mixed in with contributions from the Spanish kitchen.  El Salvador’s most notable dish is the pupusa, a thick handmade corn flour or rice flour tortilla stuffed with cheese, chicharrón (cooked pork meat ground to a paste consistency), refried beans or loroco (a vine flower bud native to Central America). Salvadoran cheeses, queso duro (hard cheese), queso fresco (fresh cheese), and cuajada, are eaten with meals. Two other typical Salvadoran dishes are yuca frita and panes rellenos. Yuca frita is deep fried cassava root served with curtido (a pickled cabbage, onion and carrot topping) and chicharron with pepesca (fried baby sardines).

Literature Personalities:
Salvador Salarrué (1899-1975)
Roque Dalton(1935- 1975)
Manilo Argueta(1935-  )


Trinidad and Tobago

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Climate: Trinidad and Tobago well within the tropics, both enjoy a generally pleasant maritime tropical climate influenced by the northeast trade winds. In Trinidad the annual mean temperature is 26 °C (78.8 °F), and the average maximum temperature is 34 °C (93.2 °F). The highest temperature ever was 39 degrees Celsius. The humidity is high, particularly during the rainy season, when it averages 85 to 87%. The island receives an average of 2,110 millimeters (83.1 in) of rainfall per year, usually concentrated in the months of June through December, when brief, intense showers frequently occur. Precipitation is highest in the Northern Range, which may receive as much as 3,810 millimeters (150 in). During the dry season, drought plagues the island’s central interior. Tobago’s climate is similar to Trinidad’s but slightly cooler. Its rainy season extends from June to December

Trinidad and Tobago cuisine  is indicative of the blends of Indian, African, Creole, Amerindian, European, Portuguese, Spanish, Chinese, Jewish, and Arab influences.Trinidad and Tobago has one of the most diverse cuisines in the Caribbean and is known throughout the world.[There are so many national dishes that T&T may have more than any other country. National dishes include Callaloo, Bake & Shark, Doubles, Pelau, Curried crab and dumplings, Oil Down, Pasteles, Black Cake, Dhal Puri Roti, Buss-up-shot Roti (Paratha), Murtanie (a.k.a. Mother-in-law) and Souse.

Literature Personalities:
V.S. Naipaul (1932- )
Derek Walcott ( 1930- )
Lawrence Scott(1943- )


Uruguay

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Climate: Uruguay is humid subtropical (Cfa according to the Köppen climate classification). It is fairly uniform nationwide, since the country is located entirely within the temperate zone. Seasonal variations are pronounced, but extremes in temperature are rare. As would be expected by its abundance of water, high humidity and fog are common. The absence of mountains and other weather barriers makes all locations vulnerable to high winds and rapid changes in weather as fronts or storms sweep across the country. Weather is sometimes humid.

Uruguayan cuisine is an international cuisine, with influences from the Indigenous Charruan culture and Europe, in particular, Mediterranean food from Spain, Italy, Portugal and France. Other surprising influences may be fromimmigration from countries such as Germany and Britain. Many foods from those countries, such as pasta, sausages, and desserts are common in the nation’s diet.

Literature Personalities:
Benedetti (1920 – 2009)
Eduardo Galeano (1940 –  present)
Delmira Agustini (1886 – 1914)


Venezuela

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Climate:  Venezuela is characterized for being tropical and isothermal as a result of its geographical location near the Equator, but because of the topography and the dominant wind direction, several climatic types occur which can be the same as found in temperate latitudes, and even polar regions. Latitude exerts little influence on the Venezuelan climate, but the altitude changes it dramatically, hdhrifjditiparticularly the temperature, reaching values very different according to the presence of different thermal floors.

Venezuelan cuisine Due to its location in the world, its diversity of industrial resources and the cultural diversity of the Venezuelan people,Venezuelan cuisine often varies greatly from one region to another. Its cuisine, traditional as well as modern, is influenced by its European (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and French), West African and Native American traditions. Food staples include corn,rice, plantain, yams, beans and several meats. Potatoes, tomatoes, onions, eggplants, squashes and zucchini are also common sides in the Venezuelan diet.

Literature Personalities:
Andrés Bello (1781 – 1865)
Rómulo Gallegos (1884 – 1969)
Rómulo Betancourt (1908 – 1981)


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